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全民免费的德国公路如何活下去?

作者: 发布时间:2017/5/2 下午6:14:12 查看次数:6621


高速公路免费开始于1932年

德国面积不大,仅仅35万平方公里,人口8800万(其中包含600万常住德国的外国人),但它却是一个不折不扣的汽车王国。一方面,这个发明汽车的国家,目前汽车保有量已接近6000万辆,而且每年还以400万辆的速度递增。换言之,德国每个家庭至少拥有一辆汽车,而一些家庭每个成员都有汽车的情况也不少见。另一方面,德国高速公路四通八达,每个城市都有高速公路相连,甚至村镇都有高速公路。因此,出行选择驾车非常方便。

令德国人引以为豪的是,德国高速公路不限速。由于路况好,人人遵守交通规则,所以可以在高速公路上放开车速,开到200公里的速度是常见的事情。

德国人认为,德国是汽车的发明国,应该保留自己鲜明的特点,即不限速的制度,通过这种方式间接让全世界见证德国汽车的高品质。因此德国必须守护汽车王国最后的特权和尊严。

让德国老百姓高兴的是,从第一条高速公路1932年8月6日开始,德国高速公路均免费通行,这为后来德国高速公路的免费制度确定了基调。

当然,从严格意义上讲,德国高速公路并不完全免费。德国规定,客车无论大小均不收费,而对货车则有要求:12吨以上的货车根据其行驶里程的多少,由安装在每一台货车上的自动计价装置监控其实际行驶高速里程数,并缴纳相关费用,每辆车每公里费用为1.5欧元。自动计价装置与安装在德国高速公路上的300个读取装置以及GPS卫星监控系统相连接,形成一套无缝监控网络。德国人对重型货车收费也表示理解,因为超大卡车对路面的损耗较为严重,需要不断进行维修保养。

德国高速公路的建设完全由政府出钱,主要从联邦财政支付。政府为何免费建设而不让私人公司承建呢?答案是,只有政府掏钱才能让高速公路免费。政府为何愿意掏钱建设高速公路呢?因为这个国家没有“三公”消费,他们的税收真正是取之于民而用之于民,所以官员当然愿意将财政支付公共项目,让民众享受看得见的实惠。



德国的高速公路建设免费,通行也免费。他们是何以做到的呢?首先,政府并不想通过高速公路牟利,他们认为,畅通的高速公路有利于人员和货物的自由、快速流动。如果中间设立收费站,会造成公路的拥堵,而且也给个人和企业增加负担,从长期看不利于企业的发展和经济的稳定增长。

其次,政府不应该赢利,所以不设立收费站。其逻辑是,因为政府已经从民众收取了税收,当然要把钱用于服务民众的项目。